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  • Many links go directly to the source document.
  • Other links go to a database or journal through OU Libraries’ homepage and may require a login with your OUNetID (4×4), particularly if you are off-campus.
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If you need to find additional resources see the library research guide.

  • Colonial America

    1. Food and Authority in Colonial America

    Primary Source
    Smith, John Smith. “Captain John Smith, on the Starving Time Found in Opening of ‘The Fourth Book,’” In The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles : With the Names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours from Their from Their First Beginning Ano 1584 to This Present 1626…, pp. 105-106. London: Printed by I.D. and I.H. for E. Blackmore, 1632. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Lacombe, Michael. “‘A Continuall and Dayly Table for Gentlemen of Fashion’: Humanism, Food, and Authority at Jamestown, 1607–1609.” American Historical Review 115, no. 3 (June 2010): 669–87. » Read

    2. Divine Judgement

    Primary Source
    “John Rolfe to Sir Thomas Dale Regarding Marriage to Pocahontas, 1614.” First-Hand Accounts, Virtual Jamestown, Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Bond, Edward L. “Source of Knowledge, Source of Power: The Supernatural World of English Virginia, 1607-1624.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 108, no. 2 (January 1, 2000): 105–38. » Read

    3. The Labor Problem in Colonial Settlements

    Primary Source
    “Richard Frethorne to His Mother and Father, on Indentured Servitude, 1623.” First-Hand Accounts, Virtual Jamestown, Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia » Read
    Secondary Source
    Morgan, Edmund S. “The Labor Problem at Jamestown, 1607-18.” American Historical Review 76, no. 3 (June 1, 1971): 595–611. » Read

    4. Bacon’s Rebellion

    Primary Source
    Bacon, Nathaniel. “Declaration of the People,” (in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 1, no. 1 (July 1, 1893): 55–63).  » Read  Note: Go to page 59
    Secondary Source
    Tarter, Brent. “Bacon’s Rebellion, the Grievances of the People, and the Political Culture of Seventeenth-Century Virginia.” The Virginia Magazine of History & Biography 119, no. 1 (January 2011): 1-41. » Read

    5. Class and the Commonalty in Seventeenth-Century Virginia

    Primary Source
    “Causes of Discontent in Virginia, 1676,” (in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 2, no. 4 (April 1, 1895):380-392.  » Read
    Secondary Source
    Thompson, Peter. “The Thief, the Householder, and the Commons: Languages of Class in Seventeenth-Century Virginia.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 63, no. 2 (April 1, 2006): 253–80. » Read

    6. Slavery and Racism in Seventeenth-Century Virginia

    Primary Source
    “Seventeenth-Century Virginia Slave Laws.” Laws, Virtual Jamestown, Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Vaughan, Alden T. “The Origins Debate: Slavery and Racism in Seventeenth-Century Virginia.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 97, no. 3 (July 1, 1989): 311–54. » Read

    7. First Contact Narratives and the Deification of Europeans

    Primary Source
    Heckewelder, John. “Indian Tradition of the First Arrival of the Dutch at Manhattan Island, now New-York.” Global Gateway. Library of Congress. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Haefeli, Evan. “On First Contact and Apotheosis: Manitou and Men in North America.” Ethnohistory 54, no. 3 (June 20, 2007): 407–43. » Read

    8. Defining Puritanism and Its Role in New England

    Primary Source
    “John Winthrop’s Christian Experience, 1637.” Winthrop Family Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society. » Read 
    Secondary Source
    Winship, Michael P. “Were There Any Puritans in New England?” The New England Quarterly 74, no. 1 (March 1, 2001): 118–38. » Read

    9. Between Two Worlds: Cultural Contact in the New World

    Primary Source
    Rowlandson, Mary. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God, Together with the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed, Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, pp. 8-41. Cambridge [Mass.]: Printed by Samuel Green, 1682. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Lepore, Jill. “Dead Men Tell No Tales: John Sassamon and the Fatal Consequences of Literacy.” American Quarterly 46, no. 4 (December 1, 1994): 479–51 » Read

    10. Metacom’s War

    Primary Source
    “Metacom Relates Complaints about the English Colonists Settlers, 1675.” History Matters. George Mason University. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Pulsipher, Jenny Hale. “Massacre at Hurtleberry Hill: Christian Indians and English Authority in Metacom’s War.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 53, no. 3 (July 1, 1996): 459–86. » Read

    11. Indian Borders and Sovereignty

    Primary Source
    Two Eighteenth-Century Indian Maps:
    A) “Catawba, 1721.” Research Laboratories of Archaeology. Early Maps of the American South — Special Topics: American Indian Maps. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  » Read
    B) “Chickasaw, 1737.” iREL: Instruments de Recherche en Ligne. Archives Nationales. France. » Read (Click on map to increase size.)
    Secondary Source
    Barr, Juliana. “Geographies of Power: Mapping Indian Borders in the ‘Borderlands’ of the Early Southwest.” The William and Mary Quarterly 68, no. 1 (January 1, 2011): 5–46.  » Read

    12. Runaway Slave Advertisements

    Primary Source
    “Virginia Runaway Slave Advertisements, 1745-1775: A Selection.” National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox; The Making of African American Identity: Vol. 1, 1500-1865.  » Read
    Secondary Source
    Waldstreicher, David. “Reading the Runaways: Self-Fashioning, Print Culture, and Confidence in Slavery in the Eighteenth-Century Mid-Atlantic.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 56, no. 2 (April 1, 1999): 243–72. » Read

    13. The Wild Foods of North America

    Primary Source
    Lawson, John. A New Voyage to Carolina; Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of That Country: Together with the Present State Thereof. And A Journal of a Thousand Miles, Travel’d Thro’ Several Nations of Indians. Giving a Particular Account of Their Customs, Manners, &c. London, 1709, pp. 28-38» Read
    Secondary Source
    Dawdy, Shannon Lee. “‘A Wild Taste’: Food and Colonialism in Eighteenth-Century Louisiana.” Ethnohistory 57, no. 3 (June 20, 2010): 389–414. » Read

    14. The First Great Awakening: Christian Revivalism in the Colonies

    Primary Source
    “George Whitefield in Middletown,” in Michael J. Crawford, “The Spiritual Travels of Nathan Cole,” » Read (Go to page 92) Note: This document is part of a larger set of documents with an introduction that appeared as Michael J. Crawford, “The Spiritual Travels of Nathan Cole,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 33 (Jan. 1976): 89-126.
    Secondary Source
    Lambert, Frank. “‘Pedlar in Divinity’: George Whitefield and the Great Awakening, 1737-1745.” The Journal of American History 77, no. 3 (December 1, 1990): 812–37 »Read

    15. Massacres of Native Peoples

    Primary Source
    Franklin, Benjamin. A Narrative of the Late Massacres, in Lancaster County, of a Number of Indians, Friends of this Province, by Persons Unknown. With Some Observations on the Same. [Philadelphia]: Printed [by Franklin and Hall?], 1764. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Fenn, Elizabeth A. “Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst.” The Journal of American History 86, no. 4 (March 1, 2000): 1552–80. » Read
    Continue reading →
  • Revolutionary America

    1. The Working Class in Revolutionary America

    Primary Source
    Brutus. “To the Free and Loyal Inhabitants of the City of New-York, 1774.” History Matters. George Mason University. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Young, Alfred F. “George Robert Twelves Hewes (1742-1840): A Boston Shoemaker and the Memory of the American Revolution.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 38, no. 4 (October 1, 1981): 562–623. » Read

    2. The Promise of Freedom: The Role of Slavery in Revolutionary Virginia

    Primary Source
    “Proclamation of Earl of Dunmore, 1775.” Africans in America: America’s Journey Through Slavery. PBS. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Holton, Woody. “‘Rebel against Rebel’: Enslaved Virginians and the Coming of the American Revolution.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 105, no. 2 (April 1, 1997): 157–92. » Read

    3. A Rhetorical Analysis of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

    Primary Source 
    Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Philadelphia: Printed and sold by W. & T. Bradford, February 14, 1776. » Read Note: Read “Introduction,” “Of the Origin and Design of Government in General…,” “Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession.”
    Secondary Source
    Ferguson, Robert A. “The Commonalities of Common Sense.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 57, no. 3 (July 1, 2000): 465–504. » Read

    4. Colonial Insurgent and the American Cause

    Primary Source
    “Declaration of Independence (A Transcription), July 4, 1776.” America’s Founding Documents. National Archives. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Breen, T.H. “Samuel Thompson’s War: The Career of an American Insurgent.” In Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation, edited by Alfred F. Young, Gary B. Nash, and Ray Raphael, 53–66. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011. » Read (requires 4×4 login)

    5. Domesticity and the American Revolution

    Primary Source 
    “Letters between John Adams and Abigail Smith Adams.” Adams Family Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society.:
    A) Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams, 31 March – 5 April 1776 » Read
    B) Letter from John Adams to Abigail Adams, 14 April 1776 » Read
    Secondary Source
    Gelles, Edith B. “Abigail Adams: Domesticity and the American Revolution.” The New England Quarterly 52, no. 4 (December 1, 1979): 500–521. » Read

    6. The Economic and Political Origins of the American Constitution

    Primary Source 
    Madison,  James. “Vices of the Political System of the United States, April 1787.” Founders Online. National Archives. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Holton, Woody. “Did Democracy Cause the Recession That Led to the Constitution?” The Journal of American History 92, no. 2 (September 1, 2005): 442–69. » Read

    7. Understanding and Analyzing “Federalist No. 10”

    Primary Source 
    Madison, James. “The Federalist Papers No. 10, November 23, 1787.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Spencer, Mark G. “Hume and Madison on Faction.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 59, no. 4 (October 1, 2002): 869–96. » Read

    8. Wives in Post-Revolutionary America

    Primary Source 
    Murray, Judith Sargent. “On the Equality of the Sexes, April 1790.” Judith Sargent Murray Society. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Lewis, Jan. “The Republican Wife: Virtue and Seduction in the Early Republic.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 44, no. 4 (October 1, 1987): 689–721. » Read

    9. George Washington and the John Jay Treaty

    Primary Source 
    Washington, George. “From George Washington to Boston Selectmen, 28 July 1795.” Founders Online. National Archives. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Estes, Todd. “The Art of Presidential Leadership: George Washington and the Jay Treaty.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 109, no. 2 (January 1, 2001): 127–58. » Read

    10. Creating Citizens in a New Republic

    Primary Source 
    Rush, Benjamin. “Of the Mode of Education Proper in a Republic, 1798.” Founders’ Constitution, University of Chicago Press. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Howell, William Huntting. “A More Perfect Copy: David Rittenhouse and the Reproduction of Republican Virtue.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 64, no. 4 (October 1, 2007): 757–90. » Read

    11. Jefferson on the Separation of Church and State

    Primary Source 
    Jefferson, Thomas. “Jefferson’s Letter to the Danbury Baptists, 1802.” Library of Congress Information Bulletin. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Neem, Johann N. “Beyond the Wall: Reinterpreting Jefferson’s Danbury Address.” Journal of the Early Republic 27, no. 1 (April 1, 2007): 139–54. » Read

    12. Natural Rights of Women

    Primary Source
    Anonymous. “Plan for the Emancipation of the Fair Sex.” Lady’s Magazine and Musical Repository, January 1802. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Zagarri, Rosemarie. “The Rights of Man and Woman in Post-Revolutionary America.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 55, no. 2 (April 1, 1998): 203–30. » Read
    Continue reading →
  • The New Nation

    1. Andrew Jackson’s Vision for America

    Primary Source 
    Two letters by Andrew Jackson:
    1) Jackson, Andrew. “To John Sevier (October 9, 1803).” In Papers of Andrew Jackson, edited by Sam B. Smith and Harriet Chappell Owsley, Vol. I, 1770-1803. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1980 » Read (requires 4×4 login)
    2) Jackson, Andrew. “Brave Tennesseans.” In Whig Extra. Nashville, Tenn., 1813. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Anderson, Fred, and Andrew Cayton. “Jackson’s Vision: Creating a Populist Empire.” In Dominion of War: Empire and Liberty in North America, 1500-2000, 207–46. New York: Viking, 2005. » Read (requires 4×4 login)

    2. Slavery and the Law

    Primary Source 
    State v. Mann, 13 N.C. 263 (1829) » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Tushnet, Mark. “State v. Mann: Why Ruffin?” North Carolina Law Review 87 (2008-2009): 967-78. » Read

    3. The Bank War

    Primary Source 
    Jackson, Andrew. “President Jackson’s Veto Message Regarding the Bank of the United States; July 10, 1832.” Avalon Project. Yale Law School. » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Wilson, Major L. “The ‘Country’ versus the ‘Court’: A Republican Consensus and Party Debate in the Bank War.” Journal of the Early Republic 15, no. 4 (December 1, 1995): 619–47.  » Read

    4. Conflicts in Sovereignty: Tribal, State, and Federal Government

    Primary Source 
    Samuel Worcester, Plaintiff in Error v. The State of Georgia, 31 US 515 (1832) » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Miles, Edwin A. “After John Marshall’s Decision: Worcester v. Georgia and the Nullification Crisis.” The Journal of Southern History 39, no. 4 (November 1, 1973): 519–44. » Read

    5. Andrew Jackson’s Justification for Indian Removal

    Primary Source 
    “State of the Union Address, Andrew Jackson, December 6, 1830.” The American Presidency Project. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Scherer, Mark. “‘Now Let Him Enforce It’: Exploring the Myth of Andrew Jackson’s Response to ’Worcester vs. Georgia (1832).” Chronicles of Oklahoma 74, no. 1 (March 1996): 16–29. » Read (requires 4×4 login)

    6. Indian Removal and Anti-removal Campaigns

    Primary Source 
    Perdue, Theda, and Michael D. Green, eds. “Cherokee Debate / Texts of Petitions.” In Cherokee Removal : A Brief History with Documents, 2nd ed., 129–37. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.  » Read (requires 4×4 login)
    Secondary Source 
    Miles, Tiya. “‘Circular Reasoning’: Recentering Cherokee Women in the Antiremoval Campaigns.” American Quarterly 61, no. 2 (2009): 221–43. » Read

    7. Slavery and Abolitionism

    Primary Source 
    Calhoun, John C. “Slavery a Positive Good, February 6, 1837.” TeachingAmericanHistory.org. » Read  Note: For the speech and the original context of the debate see U.S. Senate, Congressional Globe, 24th Congress, 2nd Sess (Feb. 6, 1837). Choose “December 5, 1836 to March 3, 1837” and go to image 157-159.  » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Ford, Lacy. “Reconfiguring the Old South: ‘Solving’ the Problem of Slavery, 1787–1838.” The Journal of American History 95, no. 1 (June 1, 2008): 95–122. » Read

    8. The Exercise of Control Over Enslaved Women

    Primary Source
    Reynolds, Mary. “Ex-Slave Stories (Texas).” Federal Writer’s Project, United States Work Projects Administration (USWPA). Library of Congress. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Camp, Stephanie M. H. “The Pleasures of Resistance: Enslaved Women and Body Politics in the Plantation South, 1830-1861.” The Journal of Southern History 68, no. 3 (August 1, 2002): 533–72. » Read

    9. A Look Inside the Slave Trade

    Primary Source 
    Spirituals
    A) Many Thousands Gone.” » Read
    B) Been in the Storm So Long.” » Read Note: see page 12 of PDF
    Secondary Source 
    Johnson, Walter. “The Chattel Principle.” In Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, 19–44. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999. » Read

    10. Working Conditions for Women in Factories

    Primary Source
    “First Official Investigation of Labor Conditions, 1845.” In A Documentary History of American Industrial Society: Labor Movement. A.H. Clark Company, 1910.  » Read Note: Begins on page 133
    Secondary Source 
    Dublin, Thomas. “Women, Work, and the Family: Female Operatives in the Lowell Mills, 1830-1860.” Feminist Studies 3, no. 1/2 (October 1, 1975): 30–39. » Read

    11. Race and Racism in the Antebellum North

    Primary Source
    Hosea Easton. “An Address: Delivered before the Coloured Population, of Providence, Rhode Island on Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 27, 1828.” In To Heal the Scourge of Prejudice: The Life and Writings of Hosea Easton, edited by George R. Price and James Brewer Stewart. Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999. » Read (requires 4×4 login)
    Secondary Source
    Pryor, Elizabeth Stordeur. “The Etymology of Nigger.” Journal of the Early Republic 36, no. 2 (Summer 2016): 203–45. » Read

    12. Labor, Capital, and American Entrepreneurship

    Primary Source
    Junius [Colton, Calvin]. “Labor and Capital.” In The Junius Tracts, 97–112. New York : Greeley & McElrath, 1844. » Read Note: Go to page 97
    Secondary Source
    Tucker, Barbara M., and Kenneth H. Tucker Jr. “The Limits of Homo Economicus: An Appraisal of Early American Entrepreneurship.” Journal of the Early Republic 24, no. 2 (July 1, 2004): 208–18. » Read

    13. The Mexican-American War

    Primary Source
    Clay, Henry. Speech of Henry Clay, at the Lexington Mass Meeting, 13th November, 1847 : Together with the Resolutions Adopted on That Occasion : Clay, Henry, 1777-1852. New York: Printed by G.F. Nesbitt, 1847. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Graebner, Norman A. “Lessons of the Mexican War.” Pacific Historical Review 47, no. 3 (August 1, 1978): 325–42. » Read

    14. Women’s Rights and Republican Ideals

    Primary Source 
    “Declaration of Sentiments, 1848.” National Park Service. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Wellman, Judith. “Women’s Rights, Republicanism, and Revolutionary Rhetoric in Antebellum New York State.” New York History 69, no. 3 (July 1, 1988): 352–84. » Read

    15. The Brutal Assault of Charles Sumner on the Senate Floor

    Primary Source
    Sumner, Charles. “Crime Against Kansas, 1856.” Digital History. » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Sinha, Manisha. “The Caning of Charles Sumner: Slavery, Race, and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War.” Journal of the Early Republic 23, no. 2 (July 1, 2003): 233–62. » Read

    16. Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Primary Source 
    “Lincoln-Douglas, Second Debate in Freeport, Illinois, 1858.” National Park Service. » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Guelzo, Allen C. “Houses Divided: Lincoln, Douglas, and the Political Landscape of 1858.” The Journal of American History 94, no. 2 (September 1, 2007): 391–417. » Read

    17. Civil War Soldiers and Family Responsibilities

    Primary Source 
    “Letters of the Dedrick Family, 1861-1863.” Letters & Diaries. Augusta County, Virginia. The Valley of the Shadow. University of Virginia Library. » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Marten, James. “Fatherhood in the Confederacy: Southern Soldiers and Their Children.” The Journal of Southern History 63, no. 2 (May 1, 1997): 269–92. » Read

    18. Prisoners in the Civil War

    Primary Source 
    “Wartime Letters from Camp Chase, 1862.” Augusta County, Virginia. The Valley of the Shadow. University of Virginia Library. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Miller, Robert E. “War Within Walls: Camp Chase and the Search for Administrative Reform.” Ohio History 96 (August 1987): 33–56. » Read

    19. Women and the Civil War Home Front

    Primary Source 
    Cormany, Rachel. “Diary of Rachel Cormany (1863).” Franklin County, Pennsylvania, Personal Papers. The Valley of the Shadow. University of Virginia Library. » Read
    Secondary Source
    Rodgers, Thomas E. “Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front.” Indiana Magazine of History 97, no. 2 (June 1, 2001): 105–28. » Read

    20. Black Soldiers in the Civil War

    Primary Source 
    “Augusta County: John Quincy Adams Nadenbousch to Hester J. Nadenbousch, April 20, 1864.” Valley Personal Papers. Valley of the Shadow. University of Virginia Library. » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Urwin, Gregory J. W. “‘We Cannot Treat Negroes … as Prisoners of War’: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in Civil War Arkansas.” Civil War History 42, no. 3 (1996): 193–210. » Read

    21. Free Blacks in Indian Territory

    Primary Source 
    “Interview with Charles Moore Brown, June 14, 1937.” Indian Pioneer Papers. Western History Collections. University of Oklahoma Libraries. » Read  Note: Other accounts available through the digital collection, Indian Pioneer History from the Western History Collections (search the term Freedmen).
    Secondary Source 
    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr., and Mary Ann Littlefield. “The Beams Family: Free Blacks in Indian Territory.” The Journal of Negro History 61, no. 1 (January 1, 1976): 16–35. » Read

    22. Lincoln and the Ethics of Emancipation

    Primary Source 
    “Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863 (Transcript).” Featured Documents, National Archives. » Read
    Secondary Source 
    Ross, Dorothy. “Lincoln and the Ethics of Emancipation: Universalism, Nationalism, Exceptionalism.” The Journal of American History 96, no. 2 (September 1, 2009): 379–99. » Read
    Continue reading →