See “Paper 2: Directions” for your professor’s instructions on how to use these research kits.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

On Saturday, March 25, 1911, shortly before the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory closed for the day, a fire erupted. The factory occupied the top three floors of a 10-story New York City building. Within 20 minutes, 146 garment workers had died—some from smoke inhalation or fire, others by falling or jumping to their deaths. Locked doors and a collapsed fire escape had limited escape. Most victims were young immigrant women. The company’s owners, who fled their office without warning workers, were acquitted of manslaughter when it could not be proved that they knew doors were locked.

Following the tragedy, labor organizers and reform-minded politicians successfully pushed for new fire codes and various protections of workers. Some two decades later, sociologist Ruth Milkman argues, the Triangle fire contributed to “New Deal standards for wages, hours and working conditions, and the right to organize and bargain collectively” at the national level. Nonetheless, even today, many workers still face immediate hazards and chronic health risks in the workplace. The materials below explore the fire’s complex causes and aftermath.  They include government and union reports from subsequent investigations as well as speeches, testimonials, and newspaper stories.

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“141 Men and Girls Die in Waist Factory Fire; Trapped High Up in Washington Place Building; Street Strewn with Bodies; Piles of Dead Inside.” Newspaper Article. New York Times, March 26, 1911. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“147 Dead, Nobody Guilty.” Magazine Article. Literary Digest, January 6, 1912, p. 6. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

Bruere, Martha Bensley. “What Is to Be Done?” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Cohen, Rose. “My First Job.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

Gompers, Samuel. “Hostile Employers See Yourselves as Others Know You.” Magazine Article. American Federationist, May 1911, pp. 356-361. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Lasser, Florence. “The Story of the ILGWU: A Radio Play in Six Episodes.” Songs and Plays. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

Lemlich, Clara. “Life in the Shop.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

McFarlane, Arthur E. “Fire and the Skyscraper.” McClure’s Magazine, September 1911, 467–82. >> Read

Newman, Pauline M. “Letter to Michael and Hugh.” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Recommendations of the Commission.” Report. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Report of the Joint Relief Committee, Ladies’ Waist & Dressmakers’ Union No. 25 On the Triangle Fire Disaster.” Report. New York, January 15, 1913. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Results of the Data Obtained by the Investigation.” Report. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Scott, Miriam Finn. “The Factory Girl’s Danger.” Magazine Article. The Outlook, April 15, 1911, p. 817. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Schneiderman, Rose. “We Have Found You Wanting.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Shepherd, William. “Eyewitness at the Triangle.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Stories of Survivors. And Witnesses and Rescuers Outside Tell What They Saw.” Newspaper Article. New York Times, March 26, 1911. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Kessler-Harris, Alice. “Women’s Choices in an Expanding Labor Market.” In Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States, 108–41. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Orleck, Annelise. “Coming of Age: The Shock of the Shops and the Dawning of Political Consciousness, 1900-1909.” In Common Sense and A Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965, 31–52. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Roediger, David R. “Class Conflict, Reform, and War: The Working Day from 1907 to 1918.” In Our Own Time: A History of American Labor and the Working Day, 177–208. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.  >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Von Drehle, David. “The Triangle.” In Triangle: The Fire That Changed America, 35–54. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Background

“Fire!” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Investigation and Trial.” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Sweatshops and Strikes Before 1911.” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

The Battle for Yosemite

Most residents were sleeping when a great earthquake shook San Francisco at 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906. Subsequent fires proved even more damaging. Ruptured gas mains sparked thirty fires that destroyed 490 city blocks. Estimates suggest that more than 2000 people died. For weeks after, the city struggled with an inadequate water supply, prompting municipal officials to search for a more reliable source of water and electricity. They proposed damning the Tuolumne River which flowed through Yosemite National Park’s Hetch Hetchy Valley. The proposal generated a national opposition movement seeking to preserve nature and to protect the national parks.

As the debate moved to the U.S. Congress, San Francisco’s advocates emphasized the needs of a great city and its large population, while their opponents offered a vision of development grounded in nature, tourism, and recreation. In 1913, Congress passed the Raker Act, granting the city the right to flood the Hetch Hetch Valley. Nonetheless, the Sierra Club and other burgeoning environmental groups gained new constituencies and stirred greater interest in the national parks.  These materials include letters, reports, articles, and congressional testimony on both sides of the debate.

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

Freeman, John, selections from On the Proposed Use of a Portion of Hetch Hetchy, Eleanor and Cherry Valleys for the Water Supply of San Francisco, California and Neighboring Cities (San Francisco: Board of Supervisors, 1912).  >> Read and Print (requires 4×4 login)

Gregory, Mary Houston. “Checking the Waste: The Evolution of the Conservation Movement.” In Library of Congress. The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920. Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, 2002.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Lawson, Andrew C. and A.O. Leuschner to: George C. Pardee, Governor of California.  “Preliminary Report of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission, 31 May, 1906.” Berkeley, CA: California State Earthquake Investigation Commission, 1906. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Memorandum from John Muir, president the Sierra Club, received May 14, 1908, by J. Horace McFarland, president, American Civic Association and read into the Congressional Record “San Francisco and the Hetch Hetchy reservoir,” Hearing held before the committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives, December 16, 1908, Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read (scroll down to “Hetch Hetchy Damming Scheme)  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Metcalf, Victor H. Letter from Victor H. Metcalf to Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, 26 April, 1906. San Francisco: Headquarters Pacific Division, 1906. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Muir, John. “A Brief Statement of the Hetch-Hetchy Case To Date. In Let Everyone Help to Save the Famous Hetch Hetchy Valley and Stop the Commercial Destruction Which Threatens Our National Parks. San Francisco: Society for the Preservation of National Parks, 1909. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Muir, John. “A Dozen Sources of Water Supply Are Available for San Francisco.” In Let Everyone Help to Save the Famous Hetch Hetchy Valley and Stop the Commercial Destruction Which Threatens Our National Parks. San Francisco: Society for the Preservation of National Parks, 1909. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Muir, John, “The Endangered Valley. The Hetch Hetchy Valley in the Yosemite National Park.” (1909). John Muir: A Reading Bibliography by Kimes. 302. University of the Pacific. Scholarly Commons. John Muir Papers.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Muir, John. “Map of Yosemite National Park.” In Let Everyone Help to Save the Famous Hetch Hetchy Valley and Stop the Commercial Destruction Which Threatens Our National Parks. San Francisco: Society for the Preservation of National Parks, 1909. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Muir, John. “San Francisco Wants Water Power at the Expense of the Nation.” In Let Everyone Help to Save the Famous Hetch Hetchy Valley and Stop the Commercial Destruction Which Threatens Our National Parks. San Francisco: Society for the Preservation of National Parks, 1909. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Muir, John. “What the Press Thinks.” Various Titles. 1908-1909. In Let Everyone Help to Save the Famous Hetch Hetchy Valley and Stop the Commercial Destruction Which Threatens Our National Parks. San Francisco: Society for the Preservation of National Parks, 1909. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Olmsted, Frederick Law. “Yosemite and the Mariposa Grove; A Preliminary Report, 1865.”  Yosemite Online.  >> Read (full report)  or  >> Print excerpt (requires 4×4 login)

Perry, Victor Elmo. “Pass Bearer Through Lines.” San Francisco: Museum of the City of San Francisco, 1906. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Pinchot, Gifford. “The Present Battle.” In The Fight for Conservation. New York: Doubleday, 1910.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Pinchot, Gifford. “Principles of Conservation.” In The Fight for Conservation. New York: Doubleday, 1910.  >> Read (see chapter IV)  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Roosevelt, Theodore, “Conservation as a National Duty,” Opening Address, Conference of Governors, Washington, D.C., May 13, 1908. Voices of Democracy.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. An Act Granting to the City and County of San Francisco Certain Rights of Way In, Over, and Through Certain Public Lands, the Yosemite National Park, and Stanislaus National Forest, and the Public Lands in the State of California, and for Other Purposes. 63rd Cong., 2nd Sess. Washington D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1913. Hetch Hetchy: Preservation or Public Utility. Virtual Museum of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (4×4 login required)

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on the Public Lands for the House of Representatives. Hearing Held Before the Committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives, December 16, 1908 on House J.R. 184-Part IV. Statement from James R. Garfield. 60th Cong., 2nd Sess. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908. Virtual Museum of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on the Public Lands for the House of Representatives. Hearing Held Before the Committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives, December 16, 1908, on House J.R. 184-Part VIII. Statement of the Honorable Robert Underwood Johnson. 60th Cong., 2nd Sess. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908. Virtual Museum of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives. Petition of Marsden Mason, City Engineer of San Francisco, on Behalf of the City and County of San Francisco, to the Secretary of the Interior Department, Washington D.C.: to Reopen the Matter of the Application of James D. Phelen for Reservoir Rights of Way in the Hetch Hetchy Valley and Lake Eleanor Sites in the Yosemite National Park. 60th Cong., 2nd Sess. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on the Public Lands for the House of Representatives. San Francisco and the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir S2575 Hearing Held Before the Committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives, H.J. Res. 184. On 16 December, 1908. 60th Cong., 1st Sess. December 16, 1908. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Offices, December, 1908. The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Various Authors. “A Great Civic Drama: A Chronology.” San Francisco: Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, 2002. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Watt, Rolla V. “Supplementary Particulars Concerning Proposed Auxiliary Water system for San Francisco.” Annual Meeting of the Commonwealth Club of California, 10 April, 1907. San Francisco, 1907. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.  >> Read  or  >> Print (requires 4×4 login)

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Clements, Kendrick A. “Politics and the Park: San Francisco’s Fight for Hetch Hetchy, 1908-1913.” Pacific Historical Review 48, no. 2 (1979): 185–215.  >> Read

Jackson, Donald C. “The Engineer as Lobbyist: John R. Freeman and the Hetch Hetchy Dam (1910–13).” Environmental History 21, no. 2 (April 1, 2016): 288–314.  >> Read

Righter, Robert. “The Hetch Hetchy Controversy.” In Natural Protest: Essays on the History of American Environmentalism, edited by Michael Egan and Jeff Crane, 117–35. New York: Routledge, 2009. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Smith, Michael B. “The Value of a Tree: Public Debates of John Muir and Gifford Pinchot.” The Historian 60, no. 4 (1998): 757–78.  >> Read

Stoll, Mark. “Milton in Yosemite: ‘Paradise Lost’ and the National Parks Idea.” Environmental History 13, no. 2 (2008): 237–74.  >> Read

Tyrrell, Ian. “America’s National Parks: The Transnational Creation of National Space in the Progressive Era.” Journal of American Studies 46, no. 1 (2012): 1–21.  >> Read

Green Book Guides

In 1936, New York City mailman Victor Hugo Green (1892-1960) published the first The Negro Motorist Green-Book, an annual guide for African Americans travelers. Automobiles offered African Americans greater mobility, but journeys beyond their own communities in the Jim Crow era presented hazards from restaurants that refused service to “sundown towns” that banned people of color after nightfall. The first edition identified New York hotels and restaurants which welcomed African Americans. As Green gathered reports from readers and Black members of his postal workers’ union, subsequent editions included dining establishments, hotels and guest houses, service stations, taverns, and other facilities across the United States. Calvin Alexander Ramsey, the author of a children’s book and a play about the guides, observes that they “created a safety net. If a person could travel by car—and those who could, did—they would feel more in control of their destiny.”

Green’s widow published the guides for six years after his death. The 1964 Civil Rights Act, which prohibited discrimination in public facilities, led to the guide’s obsolescence. Green anticipated this ending in his first edition: “There will be a day sometime in the near future when this guide will not have to be published.”

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1937.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1938.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. Accessed September 6, 2019. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green-Book: 1940.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1947.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1948.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library.  >> Read

“The Green Book Vacation Guide: 1949.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1950.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Travelers Green Book: 1952.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Travelers’ Green Book: Fall 1956.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Travelers’ Green Book: 1961.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“Travelers’ Green Book: 1963-64 International Edition.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Chambers, Jason. “The Rise of Black Consumer Marketing.” In Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry, 20–57. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Flink, James J. “Diffusion.” In The Automobile Age, 129–57. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Ortlepp, Anke. “The Emergence of the Jim Crow Airport.” In Jim Crow Terminals: The Desegregation of American Airports, 13–35. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2017. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Wolcott, Victoria W. “The Fifth Freedom: Racial Liberalism, Nonviolence, and Recreation Riots in the 1940s.” In Race, Riots, and Roller Coasters: The Struggle over Segregated Recreation in America, 47–87. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Clara Breed Collection
Japanese American National Museum

In the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the American government decided to incarcerate over 120,000 Japanese-Americans, approximately two-thirds of whom were United States citizens.  This action was taken due to national security concerns, post-attack hysteria, and racist perceptions of Japanese-Americans.  Two months after the attack, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which cleared the way for the eventual incarceration of the Japanese-Americans in ten large relocation centers, most of which were located in isolated areas of the American West.

The collection of letters below are from young Japanese-Americans locked up in the camp at Poston, Arizona.  They are all written to a librarian in San Diego named Clara Breed.  Breed was the children’s librarian at the San Diego Public Library from 1929-1945, and during those years she befriended many of her young Japanese-American patrons.  When they were incarcerated, she not only sent some of them letters but, as the correspondence attests, sent them many books and supplies as well.  What we have below is a collection of letters from these young Japanese-Americans to Clara Breed.  –Prof. Robert Griswold

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“The Letters and Postcards of Tetsuzo Hirasaki to Clara Breed,” 1942-1944. Clara Breed Collection. Japanese American National Museum.

  1. April 13, 1942
  2. April 16, 1942
  3. April 22, 1942
  4. August 10, 1942
  5. September 16, 1942
  6. October 3, 1942
  7. November 16, 1942
  8. December 1, 1942
  9. December 22, 1942
  10. February 19, 1943
  11. March 2, 1943
  12. March 3, 1943
  13. March 15, 1943
  14. April 9, 1943
  15. April 21, 1943
  16. May 6, 1943
  17. June 17, 1943
  18. August 27, 1943
  19. September 27, 1943
  20. October 30, 1943
  21. November 11, 1943
  22. December 3, 1943
  23. December 29, 1943
  24. June 10, 1944
  25. December 20, 1944

“The Letters of Louise Ogawa to Clara Breed,” 1942-1944. Clara Breed Collection. Japanese American National Museum.

  1. January 6, 1942
  2. April 23, 1942
  3. April 30, 1942
  4. May 16, 1942
  5. June 24, 1942
  6. July 15, 1942
  7. August 3, 1942
  8. August 14, 1942
  9. August 27, 1942
  10. September 16, 1942
  11. September 27, 1942
  12. October 20, 1942
  13. November 11, 1942
  14. November 30, 1942
  15. December 22, 1942
  16. January 27, 1943
  17. March 20, 1943
  18. April 9, 1943
  19. May 14, 1943
  20. June 19, 1943
  21. June 28, 1943
  22. July 25, 1943
  23. August 5, 1943
  24. August 17, 1943
  25. September 3, 1943
  26. September 14, 1943
  27. October 8, 1943
  28. November 14-15, 1943
  29. December 27, 1943
  30. February 27, 1944
  31. July 14, 1944
  32. October 28, 1944
  33. December 3, 1944

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Bearden, Russell. “Life Inside Arkansas’s Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48, no. 2 (1989): 169–96. >> Read

Chiang, Connie Y. “Imprisoned Nature: Toward an Environmental History of the World War II Japanese American Incarceration.” Environmental History 15, no. 2 (2010): 236–67. >> Read

Fujita-Rony, Thomas. “Arizona and Japanese American History: The World War II Colorado River Relocation Center.” Journal of the Southwest 47, no. 2 (2005): 209–32. >> Read

Lillquist, Karl. “Farming the Desert: Agriculture in the World War II-Era Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” Agricultural History 84, no. 1 (2010): 74–104. >> Read

Muller, Eric L. “A Penny for Their Thoughts: Draft Resistance at the Poston Relocation Center.” Law and Contemporary Problems 68, no. 2 (2005): 119–57. >> Read

Sims, Robert C. “‘A Fearless, Patriotic, Clean-Cut Stand’ Idaho’s Governor Clark and Japanese-American Relocation in World War II.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70, no. 2 (1979): 75–81. >> Read

Clara Breed Collection
Japanese American National Museum

In the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the American government decided to incarcerate over 120,000 Japanese-Americans, approximately two-thirds of whom were United States citizens.  This action was taken due to national security concerns, post-attack hysteria, and racist perceptions of Japanese-Americans.  Two months after the attack, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which cleared the way for the eventual incarceration of the Japanese-Americans in ten large relocation centers, most of which were located in isolated areas of the American West.

The collection of letters below are from young Japanese-Americans locked up in the camp at Poston, Arizona.  They are all written to a librarian in San Diego named Clara Breed.  Breed was the children’s librarian at the San Diego Public Library from 1929-1945, and during those years she befriended many of her young Japanese-American patrons.  When they were incarcerated, she not only sent some of them letters but, as the correspondence attests, sent them many books and supplies as well.  What we have below is a collection of letters from these young Japanese-Americans to Clara Breed.  –Prof. Robert Griswold

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“Letters to Clara Breed,” 19??-19??. Clara Breed Collection. Japanese American National Museum.

  1. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, May 26, 1942
  2. Katherine Tasaki, July 24, 1942
  3. Louise Ogawa, August 27, 1942
  4. Fusa Tsumagari, September 8, 1942
  5. Margaret and Florence Ishino, September 15, 1942
  6. Yaeko Hirasaki, September 16, 1942
  7. Louise Ogawa, September 16, 1942
  8. Louise Ogawa, September 27, 1942
  9. Margaret Ishino, September 28, 1942
  10. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, October 3, 1942
  11. Fusa Tsumagari, October 9, 1942
  12. Katherine Tasaki, October 12, 1942
  13. Louise Ogawa, October 20, 1942
  14. Louise Ogawa, November 11, 1942
  15. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, November 16, 1942
  16. Fusa Tsumagari, November 23, 1942
  17. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, December 1, 1942
  18. Margaret and Florence Ishino, December 10, 1942
  19. Hisako Watanabe, December 25, 1942
  20. Jack Watanabe, December 28, 1942
  21. Louise Ogawa, January 27, 1943
  22. Hisako and Jack Watanabe, February 10, 1943
  23. Margaret Arakawa, March 3, 1943
  24. Fusa Tsumagari, May 3, 1943
  25. Louise Ogawa, May 14, 1943
  26. Fusa Tsumagari, May 19, 1943
  27. Louise Ogawa, June 19, 1943
  28. Fusa Tsumagari, June 29, 1943
  29. Fusa Tsumagari, July 21, 1943
  30. Louise Ogawa, August 5, 1943
  31. Louise Ogawa, August 17, 1943
  32. Louise Ogawa, September 14, 1943
  33. Hisako Watanabe, October 5, 1943
  34. Louise Ogawa, December 27, 1943

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Bearden, Russell. “Life Inside Arkansas’s Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48, no. 2 (1989): 169–96. >> Read

Chiang, Connie Y. “Imprisoned Nature: Toward an Environmental History of the World War II Japanese American Incarceration.” Environmental History 15, no. 2 (2010): 236–67. >> Read

Fujita-Rony, Thomas. “Arizona and Japanese American History: The World War II Colorado River Relocation Center.” Journal of the Southwest 47, no. 2 (2005): 209–32. >> Read

Lillquist, Karl. “Farming the Desert: Agriculture in the World War II-Era Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” Agricultural History 84, no. 1 (2010): 74–104. >> Read

Muller, Eric L. “A Penny for Their Thoughts: Draft Resistance at the Poston Relocation Center.” Law and Contemporary Problems 68, no. 2 (2005): 119–57. >> Read

Sims, Robert C. “‘A Fearless, Patriotic, Clean-Cut Stand’ Idaho’s Governor Clark and Japanese-American Relocation in World War II.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70, no. 2 (1979): 75–81. >> Read

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“Interview with Gonzalo Baltazar,” March 23, 2001. Gonzalo Baltazar Collection, The Vietnam Center and Archive, Texas Tech University. >> Read

Maurer, Harry. “Angel Quintana.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 171–78. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Anonymous.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 514–19. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Colonel Jerry Driscoll.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 408–25. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Harry Behret.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 178–86. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Warren Wooten.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 525–34. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Colin Powell on Vietnam.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 246–50. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Philip Caputo’s Perspective.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 240–42. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Two Testimonies about My Lai.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 242–46. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Westermoreland on the War.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 209–12. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Terry, Wallace, ed. “Reginald ‘Malik’ Edwards.” In Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War, 1st ed., 1–14. New York: Random House, 1984. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Terry, Wallace, ed. “Robert E. Holcomb.” In Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War, 1st ed., 195–212. New York: Random House, 1984. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Willenson, Kim. “Bobby Muller.” In The Bad War: An Oral History of the Vietnam, 72–77. New York: New American Library, 1987.  >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Willenson, Kim. “Charles Liteky.” In The Bad War: An Oral History of the Vietnam, 66–72. New York: New American Library, 1987. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Willenson, Kim. “Major General George S. Patton III.” In The Bad War: An Oral History of the Vietnam, 79–81. New York: New American Library, 1987. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Buzzanco, Robert, and Marilyn B. Young, eds. “The Politics of Escalation in Vietnam During the Johnson Years.” In A Companion to the Vietnam War, 174–97. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2002. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “The Failure of Counter Insurgency Warfare.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed.., 220–34. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “A Grunt’s Life.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 261–72. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Westheider, James E. “Racial Violence in the Military and the Military Response.” In The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Background

Terry, Wallace, ed. “Chronology of the Major Events in the Vietnam War.” In Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War, 1st ed., 285–93. New York: Random House, 1984. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“Gay Liberation Organization Manifesto.” Milwaukee, 1970. Eldon Murray Papers. Milwaukee Area Research Center. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. >> Read

“GPU News,” March 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” April 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” September 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” October 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” December 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” March 1973. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” April 1973. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

Murray, Eldon. “Sex Laws .” (Gay People’s Union Radio Program.) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: WZMF, March 14, 1971. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Division. >> Read (listen)

“Oppression of Lesbians.” (Gay People’s Union Radio Program.) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: WUWM, July 9, 1971. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read (listen)

“Oral History Interview with Carol Stevens and Jai Brett,” August 11, 2007. Oral History Interviews of the Milwaukee LGBT History Project, 2003-2007. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department. >> Read (listen)

“Religion and the Gay.” (Gay People’s Union Radio Program.) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: WUWM, December 9, 1971. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read (listen)

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Escoffier, Jeffrey. “Fabulous Politics: Gay, Lesbian, and Queer Movements, 1969-1999.” In The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America, edited by Van Gosse and Richard R. Moser, 191–218. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Faderman, Lillian. “‘Not a Public Relations Movement’: Lesbian Revolutions in the 1960s through 70s.” In Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America, 188–214. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Meeker, Martin. “Behind the Mask of Respectability: Reconsidering the Mattachine Society and Male Homophile Practice, 1950s and 1960s.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 10, no. 1 (2001): 78–116. >> Read

White, Heather Rachelle. “Born Again at Stonewall.” In Reforming Sodom: Protestants and the Rise of Gay Rights, 138–70. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

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