See “Paper 2: Directions” for your professor’s instructions on how to use these research kits.

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

Cohen, Rose. “My First Job.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

Lemlich, Clara. “Life in the Shop.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Newman, Pauline M. “Letter to Michael and Hugh.” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“141 Men and Girls Die in Waist Factory Fire; Trapped High Up in Washington Place Building; Street Strewn with Bodies; Piles of Dead Inside.” Newspaper Article. New York Times, March 26, 1911. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Stories of Survivors. And Witnesses and Rescuers Outside Tell What They Saw.” Newspaper Article. New York Times, March 26, 1911. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Gompers, Samuel. “Hostile Employers See Yourselves as Others Know You.” Magazine Article. American Federationist, May 1911, pp. 356-361. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“147 Dead, Nobody Guilty.” Magazine Article. Literary Digest, January 6, 1912, p. 6. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

Shepherd, William. “Eyewitness at the Triangle.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

McFarlane, Arthur E. “Fire and the Skyscraper.” McClure’s Magazine, September 1911, 467–82. >> Read

Lasser, Florence. “The Story of the ILGWU: A Radio Play in Six Episodes.” Songs and Plays. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

Scott, Miriam Finn. “The Factory Girl’s Danger.” Magazine Article. The Outlook, April 15, 1911, p. 817. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Schneiderman, Rose. “We Have Found You Wanting.” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Bruere, Martha Bensley. “What Is to Be Done?” Testimonial. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Report of the Joint Relief Committee, Ladies’ Waist & Dressmakers’ Union No. 25 On the Triangle Fire Disaster.” Report. New York, January 15, 1913. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Recommendations of the Commission.” Report. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Results of the Data Obtained by the Investigation.” Report. Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Orleck, Annelise. “Coming of Age: The Shock of the Shops and the Dawning of Political Consciousness, 1900-1909.” In Common Sense and A Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965, 31–52. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Kessler-Harris, Alice. “Women’s Choices in an Expanding Labor Market.” In Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States, 108–41. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

David R. Roediger. “Class Conflict, Reform, and War: The Working Day from 1907 to 1918.” In Our Own Time: A History of American Labor and the Working Day, 177–208. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.  >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Von Drehle, David. “The Triangle.” In Triangle: The Fire That Changed America, 35–54. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Background

“Sweatshops and Strikes Before 1911.” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University.  >> Read

“Fire!” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

“Investigation and Trial.” Remembering the 1911 Triangle Factory Fire. Cornell University. >> Read

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1937.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1938.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. Accessed September 6, 2019. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green-Book: 1940.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1947.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1948.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library.  >> Read

“The Green Book Vacation Guide: 1949.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Motorist Green Book: 1950.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Travelers Green Book: 1952.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Negro Travelers’ Green Book: Fall 1956.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“The Travelers’ Green Book: 1961.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

“Travelers’ Green Book: 1963-64 International Edition.” Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library. >> Read

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Ortlepp, Anke. “The Emergence of the Jim Crow Airport.” In Jim Crow Terminals: The Desegregation of American Airports, 13–35. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2017. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Wolcott, Victoria W. “The Fifth Freedom: Racial Liberalism, Nonviolence, and Recreation Riots in the 1940s.” In Race, Riots, and Roller Coasters: The Struggle over Segregated Recreation in America, 47–87. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Flink, James J. “Diffusion.” In The Automobile Age, 129–57. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Chambers, Jason. “The Rise of Black Consumer Marketing.” In Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry, 20–57. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Clara Breed Collection
Japanese American National Museum

In the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the American government decided to incarcerate over 120,000 Japanese-Americans, approximately two-thirds of whom were United States citizens.  This action was taken due to national security concerns, post-attack hysteria, and racist perceptions of Japanese-Americans.  Two months after the attack, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which cleared the way for the eventual incarceration of the Japanese-Americans in ten large relocation centers, most of which were located in isolated areas of the American West.

The collection of letters below are from young Japanese-Americans locked up in the camp at Poston, Arizona.  They are all written to a librarian in San Diego named Clara Breed.  Breed was the children’s librarian at the San Diego Public Library from 1929-1945, and during those years she befriended many of her young Japanese-American patrons.  When they were incarcerated, she not only sent some of them letters but, as the correspondence attests, sent them many books and supplies as well.  What we have below is a collection of letters from these young Japanese-Americans to Clara Breed.  –Prof. Robert Griswold

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“The Letters and Postcards of Tetsuzo Hirasaki to Clara Breed,” 1942-1944. Clara Breed Collection. Japanese American National Museum.

  1. April 13, 1942
  2. April 16, 1942
  3. April 22, 1942
  4. August 10, 1942
  5. September 16, 1942
  6. October 3, 1942
  7. November 16, 1942
  8. December 1, 1942
  9. December 22, 1942
  10. February 19, 1943
  11. March 2, 1943
  12. March 3, 1943
  13. March 15, 1943
  14. April 9, 1943
  15. April 21, 1943
  16. May 6, 1943
  17. June 17, 1943
  18. August 27, 1943
  19. September 27, 1943
  20. October 30, 1943
  21. November 11, 1943
  22. December 3, 1943
  23. December 29, 1943
  24. June 10, 1944
  25. December 20, 1944

“The Letters of Louise Ogawa to Clara Breed,” 1942-1944. Clara Breed Collection. Japanese American National Museum.

  1. January 6, 1942
  2. April 23, 1942
  3. April 30, 1942
  4. May 16, 1942
  5. June 24, 1942
  6. July 15, 1942
  7. August 3, 1942
  8. August 14, 1942
  9. August 27, 1942
  10. September 16, 1942
  11. September 27, 1942
  12. October 20, 1942
  13. November 11, 1942
  14. November 30, 1942
  15. December 22, 1942
  16. January 27, 1943
  17. March 20, 1943
  18. April 9, 1943
  19. May 14, 1943
  20. June 19, 1943
  21. June 28, 1943
  22. July 25, 1943
  23. August 5, 1943
  24. August 17, 1943
  25. September 3, 1943
  26. September 14, 1943
  27. October 8, 1943
  28. November 14-15, 1943
  29. December 27, 1943
  30. February 27, 1944
  31. July 14, 1944
  32. October 28, 1944
  33. December 3, 1944

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Bearden, Russell. “Life Inside Arkansas’s Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48, no. 2 (1989): 169–96. >> Read

Fujita-Rony, Thomas. “Arizona and Japanese American History: The World War II Colorado River Relocation Center.” Journal of the Southwest 47, no. 2 (2005): 209–32. >> Read

Lillquist, Karl. “Farming the Desert: Agriculture in the World War II-Era Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” Agricultural History 84, no. 1 (2010): 74–104. >> Read

Muller, Eric L. “A Penny for Their Thoughts: Draft Resistance at the Poston Relocation Center.” Law and Contemporary Problems 68, no. 2 (2005): 119–57. >> Read

Sims, Robert C. “‘A Fearless, Patriotic, Clean-Cut Stand’ Idaho’s Governor Clark and Japanese-American Relocation in World War II.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70, no. 2 (1979): 75–81. >> Read

Clara Breed Collection
Japanese American National Museum

In the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the American government decided to incarcerate over 120,000 Japanese-Americans, approximately two-thirds of whom were United States citizens.  This action was taken due to national security concerns, post-attack hysteria, and racist perceptions of Japanese-Americans.  Two months after the attack, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which cleared the way for the eventual incarceration of the Japanese-Americans in ten large relocation centers, most of which were located in isolated areas of the American West.

The collection of letters below are from young Japanese-Americans locked up in the camp at Poston, Arizona.  They are all written to a librarian in San Diego named Clara Breed.  Breed was the children’s librarian at the San Diego Public Library from 1929-1945, and during those years she befriended many of her young Japanese-American patrons.  When they were incarcerated, she not only sent some of them letters but, as the correspondence attests, sent them many books and supplies as well.  What we have below is a collection of letters from these young Japanese-Americans to Clara Breed.  –Prof. Robert Griswold

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“Letters to Clara Breed,” 19??-19??. Clara Breed Collection. Japanese American National Museum.

  1. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, May 26, 1942
  2. Katherine Tasaki, July 24, 1942
  3. Louise Ogawa, August 27, 1942
  4. Fusa Tsumagari, September 8, 1942
  5. Margaret and Florence Ishino, September 15, 1942
  6. Yaeko Hirasaki, September 16, 1942
  7. Louise Ogawa, September 16, 1942
  8. Louise Ogawa, September 27, 1942
  9. Margaret Ishino, September 28, 1942
  10. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, October 3, 1942
  11. Fusa Tsumagari, October 9, 1942
  12. Katherine Tasaki, October 12, 1942
  13. Louise Ogawa, October 20, 1942
  14. Louise Ogawa, November 11, 1942
  15. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, November 16, 1942
  16. Fusa Tsumagari, November 23, 1942
  17. Tetsuzo Hirasaki, December 1, 1942
  18. Margaret and Florence Ishino, December 10, 1942
  19. Hisako Watanabe, December 25, 1942
  20. Jack Watanabe, December 28, 1942
  21. Louise Ogawa, January 27, 1943
  22. Hisako and Jack Watanabe, February 10, 1943
  23. Margaret Arakawa, March 3, 1943
  24. Fusa Tsumagari, May 3, 1943
  25. Louise Ogawa, May 14, 1943
  26. Fusa Tsumagari, May 19, 1943
  27. Louise Ogawa, June 19, 1943
  28. Fusa Tsumagari, June 29, 1943
  29. Fusa Tsumagari, July 21, 1943
  30. Louise Ogawa, August 5, 1943
  31. Louise Ogawa, August 17, 1943
  32. Louise Ogawa, September 14, 1943
  33. Hisako Watanabe, October 5, 1943
  34. Louise Ogawa, December 27, 1943

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Bearden, Russell. “Life Inside Arkansas’s Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48, no. 2 (1989): 169–96. >> Read

Fujita-Rony, Thomas. “Arizona and Japanese American History: The World War II Colorado River Relocation Center.” Journal of the Southwest 47, no. 2 (2005): 209–32. >> Read

Lillquist, Karl. “Farming the Desert: Agriculture in the World War II-Era Japanese-American Relocation Centers.” Agricultural History 84, no. 1 (2010): 74–104. >> Read

Muller, Eric L. “A Penny for Their Thoughts: Draft Resistance at the Poston Relocation Center.” Law and Contemporary Problems 68, no. 2 (2005): 119–57. >> Read

Sims, Robert C. “‘A Fearless, Patriotic, Clean-Cut Stand’ Idaho’s Governor Clark and Japanese-American Relocation in World War II.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70, no. 2 (1979): 75–81. >> Read

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“Interview with Gonzalo Baltazar,” March 23, 2001. Gonzalo Baltazar Collection, The Vietnam Center and Archive, Texas Tech University. >> Read

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Westermoreland on the War.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 209–12. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Philip Caputo’s Perspective.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 240–42. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Two Testimonies about My Lai.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 242–46. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J., ed. “Colin Powell on Vietnam.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 246–50. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Terry, Wallace, ed. “Reginald ‘Malik’ Edwards.” In Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War, 1st ed., 1–14. New York: Random House, 1984. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Terry, Wallace, ed. “Robert E. Holcomb.” In Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War, 1st ed., 195–212. New York: Random House, 1984. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Anonymous.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 514–19. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Warren Wooten.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 525–34. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Angel Quintana.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 171–78. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Harry Behret.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 178–86. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Maurer, Harry. “Colonel Jerry Driscoll.” In Strange Ground: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975, an Oral History, 1st ed., 408–25. New York: H. Holt, 1989. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Willenson, Kim. “Bobby Muller.” In The Bad War: An Oral History of the Vietnam, 72–77. New York: New American Library, 1987.  >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Willenson, Kim. “Charles Liteky.” In The Bad War: An Oral History of the Vietnam, 66–72. New York: New American Library, 1987. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Willenson, Kim. “Major General George S. Patton III.” In The Bad War: An Oral History of the Vietnam, 79–81. New York: New American Library, 1987. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

McMahon, Robert J. “The Failure of Counter Insurgency Warfare.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed.., 220–34. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Buzzanco, Robert, and Marilyn B. Young, eds. “The Politics of Escalation in Vietnam During the Johnson Years.” In A Companion to the Vietnam War, 174–97. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2002. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

McMahon, Robert J. “A Grunt’s Life.” In Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays, 4th ed., 261–72. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Westheider, James E. “Racial Violence in the Military and the Military Response.” In The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Background

Terry, Wallace, ed. “Chronology of the Major Events in the Vietnam War.” In Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War, 1st ed., 285–93. New York: Random House, 1984. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Primary Sources: Original Documents from the Time

“Gay Liberation Organization Manifesto.” Milwaukee, 1970. Eldon Murray Papers. Milwaukee Area Research Center. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. >> Read

“Oral History Interview with Carol Stevens and Jai Brett,” August 11, 2007. Oral History Interviews of the Milwaukee LGBT History Project, 2003-2007. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department. >> Read

Murray, Eldon. “Sex Laws .” (Gay People’s Union Radio Program.) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: WZMF, March 14, 1971. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Division. >> Read (listen)

“Religion and the Gay.” (Gay People’s Union Radio Program.) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: WUWM, December 9, 1971. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read (listen)

“Oppression of Lesbians.” (Gay People’s Union Radio Program.) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: WUWM, July 9, 1971. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read (listen)

“GPU News,” March 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” April 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” September 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” October 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” December 1972. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” March 1973. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

“GPU News,” April 1973. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Archives Division. >> Read

Secondary Sources: What Historians Have Written

Meeker, Martin. “Behind the Mask of Respectability: Reconsidering the Mattachine Society and Male Homophile Practice, 1950s and 1960s.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 10, no. 1 (2001): 78–116. >> Read

Escoffier, Jeffrey. “Fabulous Politics: Gay, Lesbian, and Queer Movements, 1969-1999.” In The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America, edited by Van Gosse and Richard R. Moser, 191–218. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

White, Heather Rachelle. “Born Again at Stonewall.” In Reforming Sodom: Protestants and the Rise of Gay Rights, 138–70. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

Faderman, Lillian. “‘Not a Public Relations Movement’: Lesbian Revolutions in the 1960s through 70s.” In Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America, 188–214. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991. >> Read (requires 4×4 login)

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